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Ein Computerspiel oder Videospiel ist ein elektronisches Spiel, das durch Interaktion mit einer Benutzeroberfläche visuelles Feedback auf einem Videobildschirm, meist einem Fernsehgerät oder Computermonitor, generiert. Der game ist der Verband der deutschen Games-Branche. Er ist u.a. Veranstalter der gamescom. D Berlin Tel.: 87 79 - 0 [email protected] August | Marktdaten. Infografik. gamescom The Heart of Gaming vom bis digital in Köln – die europäische Leitmesse für digitale Spielekultur. Achtung: Die GameCity ist aufgrund von Corona abgesagt! Aber wir kommen wieder - stronger than ever: bis Oktober Aktuelle Infos.
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Gaming disorder is now recognised by the World Health Organization as a mental health condition. For the condition to be diagnosed as gaming disorder, the behaviour pattern must be severe enough to cause significant negative effects on personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important life activities.
The features of gaming disorder should have been continuing for at least 12 months. Many millions of people throughout the world regularly spend time gaming.
But gaming addiction is much less common. It is estimated that gaming addiction affects between 1 and 9 out of every gamers.
The risk of gaming addiction is greater for people who tend to be impulsive. The risk also increases with increasing time spent gaming. The games most likely to lead to addiction seem to be the massive multi-player online role-playing games.
These role-playing games involve an ongoing story that is never quite finished. The story evolves with every play, and this encourages players to keep playing to keep the story going.
However, even less intense games can lead to gaming addiction. There is currently a lack of very strong evidence on the best treatments for gaming addiction.
The most widely used psychological help has been cognitive behavioural therapy. Other approaches, including family therapy and motivational interviewing, have also been used.
Treating gaming addiction is based on an assessment of each individual person and the severity of their gaming addiction. The aim of treatment is usually to help the person completely avoid gaming because even a small amount of gaming may steadily increase back to a problem in a person who is susceptible to gaming addiction.
It is also very important to teach families how to help and support the person with gaming addiction. One study found that about 1 in 4 people with gaming addiction continued to have significant symptoms over a two-year period.
Another study found that the symptoms resolved in about 1 in 2 people with gaming disorder over a one-year period. Gaming disorder ; World Health Organization, January Internet Gaming ; American Psychiatric Association.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. Epub Feb J Behav Addict. Epub Aug 1. Disclaimer: This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions.
Patient Platform Limited has used all reasonable care in compiling the information but make no warranty as to its accuracy.
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Over the years this has expanded to include almost every type of skill that one might see prevalent in the creation of any movie or television program, including sound designers , musicians, and other technicians; as well as skills that are specific to video games, such as the game designer.
All of these are managed by producers. In the early days of the industry, it was more common for a single person to manage all of the roles needed to create a video game.
As platforms have become more complex and powerful in the type of material they can present, larger teams have been needed to generate all of the art, programming, cinematography, and more.
This is not to say that the age of the "one-man shop" is gone, as this is still sometimes found in the casual gaming and handheld markets,  where smaller games are prevalent due to technical limitations such as limited RAM or lack of dedicated 3D graphics rendering capabilities on the target platform e.
With the growth of the size of development teams in the industry, the problem of cost has increased. Development studios need to be able to pay their staff a competitive wage in order to attract and retain the best talent, while publishers are constantly looking to keep costs down in order to maintain profitability on their investment.
Typically, a video game console development team can range in sizes of anywhere from 5 to 50 people, with some teams exceeding In May , one game project was reported to have a development staff of A newer trend since the mids is indie game development , small teams outside any direct publisher control, typically making games that are smaller in scope than those from the larger " AAA " game studios and more experiment in style.
Indie game development are aided by larger availability of digital distribution, including the newer mobile gaming marker, and readily-available development tools for these games.
Video games have a large network effect that draw on many different sectors that tie into the larger video game industry. While video game developers are a significant portion of the industry, other key participants in the market include: .
The research firm anticipated that Asia would soon overtake North America as the largest video game market due to the strong growth of free-to-play and mobile games.
Sales of different types of games vary widely between countries due to local preferences. Japanese consumers tend to purchase much more handheld games than console games and especially PC games , with a strong preference for games catering to local tastes.
Computer games are also popular in China. Creators will nearly always copyright their games. Laws that define copyright, and the rights that are conveyed over a video game vary from country to country.
Usually a fair use copyright clause allows consumers some ancillary rights, such as for a player of the game to stream a game online. This is a vague area in copyright law, as these laws predate the advent of video games.
This means that rightsholders often must define what they will allow a consumer to do with the video game. Although departments of computer science have been studying the technical aspects of video games for years, theories that examine games as an artistic medium are a relatively recent development in the humanities.
The two most visible schools in this emerging field are ludology and narratology. Narrativists approach video games in the context of what Janet Murray calls "Cyberdrama".
That is to say, their major concern is with video games as a storytelling medium, one that arises out of interactive fiction. Murray puts video games in the context of the Holodeck , a fictional piece of technology from Star Trek , arguing for the video game as a medium in which the player is allowed to become another person, and to act out in another world.
Ludologists break sharply and radically from this idea. They argue that a video game is first and foremost a game, which must be understood in terms of its rules, interface, and the concept of play that it deploys.
Espen J. Aarseth argues that, although games certainly have plots, characters, and aspects of traditional narratives, these aspects are incidental to gameplay.
For example, Aarseth is critical of the widespread attention that narrativists have given to the heroine of the game Tomb Raider , saying that "the dimensions of Lara Croft 's body, already analyzed to death by film theorists , are irrelevant to me as a player, because a different-looking body would not make me play differently When I play, I don't even see her body, but see through it and past it.
While many games rely on emergent principles , video games commonly present simulated story worlds where emergent behavior occurs within the context of the game.
The term "emergent narrative" has been used to describe how, in a simulated environment, storyline can be created simply by "what happens to the player.
In general, any place where event-driven instructions occur for AI in a game, emergent behavior will exist. The programmer never wrote code to specifically create a traffic jam, yet one now exists in the game.
Video game culture is a worldwide new media subculture formed around video games and game playing. As computer and video games have increased in popularity over time, they have had a significant influence on popular culture.
Video game culture has also evolved over time hand in hand with internet culture as well as the increasing popularity of mobile games.
Many people who play video games identify as gamers, which can mean anything from someone who enjoys games to someone who is passionate about it.
As video games become more social with multiplayer and online capability , gamers find themselves in growing social networks. Gaming can both be entertainment as well as competition, as a new trend known as electronic sports is becoming more widely accepted.
In the s, video games and discussions of video game trends and topics can be seen in social media , politics, television, film and music.
Since the mids there has been debate whether video games qualify as art, primarily as the form's interactivity interfered with the artistic intent of the work and that they are designed for commercial appeal.
A significant debate on the matter came after film critic Roger Ebert published an essay "Video Games can never be art",  which challenged the industry to prove him and other critics wrong.
Supreme Court ruled in the landmark case Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association that video games were a protected form of speech with artistic merit.
Besides their entertainment value, appropriately-designed video games have been seen to provide value in education across several ages and comprehension levels.
Learning principles found in video games have been identified as possible techniques with which to reform the U. Video games are also believed to be beneficial to the mind and body.
It has been shown that action video game players have better hand—eye coordination and visuo-motor skills , such as their resistance to distraction , their sensitivity to information in the peripheral vision and their ability to count briefly presented objects, than nonplayers.
Video games have not been without controversy since the s. Parents and children's advocates have raised concerns that violent video games can influence young players into performing those violent acts in real life, and events such as the Columbine High School massacre in in which the perpetrators specifically alluded to using video games to plot out their attack, raised further fears.
Medical experts and mental health professionals have also raised concerned that video games may be addictive , and the World Health Organization has included "gaming disorder" in the 11th revision of its International Statistical Classification of Diseases.
Other health experts, including the American Psychiatric Association , have stated that there is insufficient evidence that video games can can create violent tendiencies or lead to addictive behavior,  though agree that video games typically use a compulsion loop in their core design that can create dopamine that can help reinforce the desire to continue to play through that compulsion loop and potentially lead into violent or addictive behavior.
Numerous other controversies around video games and its industry have arisen over the years, among the more notable incidents include the United State Congressional hearings on games like Mortal Kombat which lead to the formation of the ESRB ratings system, numerous legal actions taken by attoney Jack Thompson over violent games such as Grand Theft Auto III and Manhunt from to , the outrage over the " No Russian " level from Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 in , and the Gamergate movement in Players of video games often maintain collections of games.
More recently there has been interest in retrogaming , focusing on games from the first decades. Separately, there is also concern about the preservation of video games, as both game media and the hardware to play them degrade over time.
Further, many of the game developers and publishers from the first decades no longer exist, so records of their games have disappeared. Archivists and preservations have worked within the scope of copyright law to save these games as part of the cultural history of the industry.
There are many video game museums around the world, including the National Videogame Museum in Frisco, Texas ,  which serves as the largest museum wholly dedicated to the display and preservation of the industry's most important artifacts.
The Museum of Modern Art has added a total of 20 video games and one video game console to its permanent Architecture and Design Collection since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Electronic game that involves a user interface and visual feedback. Arcade games Best-selling games franchises Highest-grossing games franchises arcade mobile Most-played games mobile Games considered among the best Game of the Year awards Negative reception.
Main articles: History of video games and Early history of video games. Baer left receiving the National Medal of Technology from U.
President George W. Bush in Nolan Bushnell in See also: Glossary of video game terms. Main article: Game controller. Main article: Video game graphics.
Main article: Video game genre. See also: Gameplay. Play media. Main article: Video game content rating system. Main article: Video game development.
See also: Video game industry practices. Main article: Video game industry. See also: List of best-selling video games and Golden age of arcade video games.
Main article: Copyright and video games. Main article: Game studies. Main articles: Video game culture and Gamer. Main article: Video games as an art form.
Main articles: Video games in education and Video game behavioral effects. Main article: Video game controversies. Main articles: Video game collecting and Video game preservation.
See also: List of video game museums. Video games portal. Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 20 May Archived from the original on 27 August Retrieved 24 October Archived from the original on 23 July Douglas' Noughts and Crosses game".
Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 3 July Introduction to Game Development.
Massachusetts: Charles River Media. Wired News. Archived from the original on 16 May Archived from the original on 28 December Archived from the original on 18 February Retrieved 25 October Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 8 December Atari Inc.
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We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Organizations such as AnandTech and Tom's Hardware Guide provide such benchmarks and hardware reviews.
The benchmarks include ratings for PC components that are necessary to build a gaming computer. It is also crucial to consider computer cooling , as this is required to remove the waste heat produced by a computer's components.
Modern consumer-grade CPUs often have on- die integrated GPUs ; however, these GPUs typically do not provide the adequate performance for playing graphics-intensive games, and are instead aimed primarily for less demanding workloads such as graphical user interface rendering for "everyday" tasks, video playback, and light gaming.
A major component of a gaming computer is the processor, or CPU central processing unit. Motherboards that are designed for gaming computers are differentiated from their normal counterparts by being created with case windows in mind; having more visually appealing designs, sturdier materials, and, in some models, built-in LED lighting.
Random-access memory RAM is one of the most important components for a gaming computer. Computers designed for playing games often are supplied with a high amount of RAM.
DDR double data rate memory is essential for any computer system. Adding more memory allows the CPU to address more data for it to quickly access instead of reading off a comparatively slow disk drive or solid-state storage device.
GDDR graphical double data rate memory is a type of memory required for the operation of any PCIe graphics card and is built directly onto the card itself.
The amount of RAM built onto a graphics card allows the GPU to quickly access data such as textures instead of reading from a much slower storage device.
Having more GDDR memory allows the system to handle higher levels of spatial anti-aliasing and more complex textures. The main advantages of having the memory mounted so close to the GPU itself are as follows; reduced latency due to signals traveling a shorter distance, more bandwidth due to more space for data lanes, and decreased power consumption due to inherent differences to GDDR on the microscopic level.
Solid-state drives SSD are a newer form of data storage that is gaining in popularity. The more common and traditional hard disk drive HDD is still the more widely used, but many gaming enthusiasts are turning to SSDs in favor of the advantages they offer over HDDs.
SSDs also offer faster access time, as HDDs require time in order for the moving parts to speed up to operating specifications.
For an SSD, files open almost instantly. They also currently offer a lower common maximum capacity than HDDs.
Thus, it is common for a gaming computer to have an SSD for the operating system , applications and frequently used files, and one or more hard disk drives for larger, rarely-used files.
Although occasionally overlooked, the power supply unit PSU is still an important component to consider. The wattage needed to run a system is dependent on the hardware, so often a PSU calculator is used to determine the wattage needed.
The PSU must also be compatible with the other hardware pieces. Non-modular PSUs come with fixed cables, meaning unused ones will be left unconnected.
Modular power supplies have cables that are detachable so unused cables do not create excess clutter but are often more expensive than their non-modular counterparts.
The added power draw needed to overclock either processing unit often requires additional cooling to what the original equipment manufacturer shipped their product with, most notably in the case of CPUs.
Two types of mainstream cooling exist, air cooling and water cooling. Water cooling is somewhat more complex, it makes use of water blocks, radiators, pumps, tubing and optionally a reservoir.
Water removes heat by running water through a block affixed to the component and then allowing the water time in the radiator in order to cool off.
Fans are often used to increase a radiator's rate of heat dissipation. Watercooling is available as either a ready-to-use system aio coolers or as kits that need to be assembled and can be customized for expanding cooling capacity, cooling additional components or for aesthetic reasons.
Choosing a computer case involves several considerations. For one, there is a large range of sizes. A larger gaming tower will allow for future upgrades and more movement.
The case must also be compatible with the motherboard's form factor. Because games are oftentimes demanding on a system, one of the most important factors of choosing a case is cooling.
In order to avoid the risk of overheating hardware, a computer case with good airflow and a quality fan will go a long way in ensuring proper cooling.
Custom-building allows a builder to personalize their case if they so desire for aesthetic purposes. There are many designs for computer cases so the builder can choose to their liking.
While custom-built PCs tend to be more advanced and powerful, some choose to go with pre-built or custom-built gaming PCs.
These PCs can often be more expensive than building one's own, with higher premiums attached to high-end brands with varying levels of customer service.
Different companies offer varying degrees of customization. While established gaming computers such as Alienware or CyberPowerPC offer unique case designs and little customization from the user prior to purchase, other smaller firms allow a greater degree of customization and better value-for-money, often to the same extent as if the user were to build the computer themselves.
There are, however, drawbacks to building one's own computer. Assembling a computer means being personally responsible for any problems that may arise, both during the assembly phase, and after it is in regular use.
Instead of using a single technical support hotline to cover the entire system, often one will have to deal with individual component manufacturers.
Due to the wide inconsistencies in after-purchase support from component manufacturers, trying to get support can be a daunting task. Customer support is a major reason why even extreme gaming enthusiasts may look to a system integrator for their custom PC builds.
There are many positive aspects in choosing to build one's own system, such as no longer being tied to specific configurations.